In previous generations, tattooing was something done primarily by those, mostly males, in the military and only to a small extent (one or two relatively small tattoos, such a

Discussion Post:

You are required to post items to the course online discussion forum (see the syllabus for how they will be graded) that add value to the topic that is covered for the week, linking theory to real-world examples. Reflect on the following question:

In previous generations, tattooing was something done primarily by those, mostly males, in the military and only to a small extent (one or two relatively small tattoos, such as an anchor on a forearm). Also, women rarely were seen with tattoos and those were rarely visible to anyone who passed by. Today, tattooing has become a common occurrence and many people display large, ornate tattoos all over their bodies. The attitude toward these body adornments has changed dramatically. To what do you attribute this change? What is your view of tattooing?

  • Analyze the questions according to the requirements for the week.
  • Add one take away from this week’s article and one from this week’s videos – Make specific connections to the readings, videos, or recordings for the week and specifically include citations or statements from the video(s) and reading(s) covered this week.
  • Posts will be made in the Canvas discussion forum.
  • Review the attached discussion board evaluation rubric.

Rubric for Discussion Posts (4 points) Excellent (4 Points)

Acceptable (3-2 Points)

Unacceptable (1-0 Points)

Original Post

(2 points) o Student postings demonstrate

all of the guidelines for full engagement. Fellow students connect ideas from the readings, videos, personal experience and comments. Posts are argued well and supported with specific references.

o The post advances further discussion by stimulating at least one substantial followP up post.

o WellP structured, logically sequenced sentences, written in formal language.

o Contribution is thoughtful, analytical, and original.

o Author makes meaningful connections between content and personal reflection current events, etc.

o Free of grammatical/spelling errors.

o Length requirement: At least two paragraphs (7P 10 sentences each paragraph)

(1-2 points) o Student has met the basic

question requirements for posting and demonstrates some understanding of the content. Post may (1) fail to address all aspects of the question, or (2) lack appropriate course references to support arguments, or (3) fail to provide value-add follow- up responses to colleagues.

o The post advances further discussion by stimulating at least one substantial follow-up post.

o Structure is present but organization of ideas is somewhat sporadic.

o Shows evidence of analytical thought on the idea, but analysis is not fully developed or clearly presented.

o Somewhat meaningful connections between current events, but connections are not clearly presented.

o Some grammatical/spelling errors.

o Length requirement: At least TWO paragraphs (1-6 sentences each paragraph)

(1 – 0 points) o Student has made postings

but they lack depth and substance and fail to demonstrate a clear understanding of the content.

o Short post, which does not develop idea for further discussion.

o Lacks structure and/or flow. o Lacks insight or depth. Does

not express opinion clearly, and/or shows little understanding.

o Written in informal language

o Poor spelling and many grammatical errors.

o Length requirement: At least ONE paragraph (7-10 sentences each paragraph)

Response (1 point) (0 points) to peer

(2 points) Student replies to at least two (2) peer posting in a meaningful manner: at least 4P 5 sentences and provides with specific and concrete comments.

Student replies to 1 peer posting in a meaningful manner: at least 4-5 sentences and provides with specific and concrete comments.

Student does reply submit responses to peer postings

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Chapter 2 Physical Appearance

 Breast implants, breast reductions, face lifts, hair implants, all forms of plastic surgery…

 High heeled pumps, body enhancers, padded bras, liposuction for men and women, skin-tight clothing…


 Why do men and women invest so much effort and money trying to improve their physical appearance?

 Why is attractiveness so important?

 Is beauty in the eyes of the beholder?


 Usually first to be received

 Significantly impact our willingness or unwillingness to communicate with others

 Have strong impact on relational development

 Often serve as initial impressions about others

 Initial judgments may be inaccurate


 Make relational decisions based on person’s physical attractiveness

 More attractive people are judged in more socially desirable ways

 Attractive people considered more successful in careers, more sexually active, happier in life, more responsive, sensitive, interesting, competent, etc.


 Perception is based on physical attributes.

 Something we perceive in others and they in us.

 It doesn’t exist on its own.

 It’s in the eye of the beholder.


Physical Attractiveness

Social Attractiveness

Task Attractiveness


Degree to which we find others appealing based on physical attributes.

Plays important role in our interactions with others, particularly strangers:  Usually converse with strangers we perceive as good-looking, pretty, or

handsome  Attempt to avoid those we find physically unattractive.


Social Attractiveness Degree to which we perceive another as someone with whom we would like to play, associate, socialize, etc.

Task Attractiveness

Degree to which we perceive another as someone with whom we would like to work, conduct business, etc.

What Is Attractive?

Attractiveness is time-bound.

For example, Photograph: “The idea woman though the ages”:

What Is Attractive? Attractiveness is culture-bound:

o In USA? o Others?

Why Is Physical Attractiveness Given So Much Importance?

Non-verbal messages our appearance communicates to others – Perceptions are associated with being warmer, more genuine, sincere, mentally stable, socially and affable.

Appearance is an important source of information about us – It predicts:  social behavior  judgment about success  Competence  character in our professional and personal lives.

For the sake of:  group identification  status  likeableness  popularity

Being attractive has an effect in:  School  Persuasive settings  Job interviews  Dating and marriage  Health care

The Matching Hypothesis


Research shows that attractive students:  Receive higher grades.  Receive more attention from teachers and classmates.  Are judged more positively: attractive children are seen as more

intelligent, more socially adept, higher in educational potential and more positive in their attitudes toward school – even when unattractive children had the same performance.

(Riniolo, T., Johnson, K., Sherman, T & Misso, J, 2010)


• Teachers engage in fewer interactions with unattractive students.

• Classmates are less likely to communicate with unattractive students.

• Early settings, chronic behavior problem vs temporary problem. • Teachers that dress:

 More formally=viewed more competent, organized, prepared, and knowledgeable

 Casually or informally = viewed as friendly, outgoing, receptive, fair, and flexible

(Parks, F & Kennedy, J., 2007)


Attractive patients:

o May receive more attention, care, and communication from physicians and nurses.


 Physical attractiveness superseded a host of other variables in determining liking for one’s pattern and a desire to date in the future.

 Replicated study showed strong correlation (.89) between “desire to date again” and “physical attractiveness.”

 Physical attractive may be most important when dating involves short-term and more public, rather than private, activities.

 For example, in online dating, individuals with lower in attractiveness were more likely to enhance physical appearance by altering their profile pictures and misrepresenting description of their physical characteristics

(Hancock & Toma, 2009; Hancock, 2010)


Not always benefits… o Some men did not seek dates with the extremely attractive women because

they felt the chance of rejection were height and might be limited to physical attractiveness (Reiss, Nezlek, & Wheeler, 1980;

Reis et al., 1982).

o Women average in looks were rated higher when evaluated from a photograph in which they were posed alongside other women who were perceived attractive (Geiselman, Haight, & Kimata, 1984).



 Unattractive men who were seen with attractive women were judged as making more money, being more successful in their occupations, and being more intelligent than attractive men with attractive partners.

 Unattractive women seen with attractive men, however, did not receive compensating attributions.


Matching Hypothesis – Most people choose partners considered in the same attractiveness category as they are.

• Physical attractiveness influences decisions about who we approach, date, marry, hire, etc.

• Confirmed also in online dating. Self-esteem?

(Taylor, Fiori, Mendelsohn, & Cheshire, 2011)

Attractive men earn 9% more than unattractive men. Attractive women earn 4% more than unattractive women

(Yale University)


Physically attractive people have an edge in interviews: • Three to four greater chance of being hired for a position. • Sometimes provides an edge when the less attractive competitor is

more qualified for the position. • The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

reported that two thirds of its members, both men and women, wanted cosmetic surgery because they wanted to “remain competitive in the workplace.”

(Yale University)


 Highly attractive job applicants might be evaluated negatively by same-sex evaluators who feel threatened by them (Agthe, Sporrle, & Maner, 2011).

 Men who are at least 6′ tall make an average salary of $5,525 more than their shorter, 5’5 counterparts (Harvard University Research).

 Study polled half of all the Fortune 500 companies about the height of their CEOs. On average, male CEOs were three inches taller than the average man (Harvard University Research).

 For every three inches taller, women earn 5 to 8 percent more money than women of average height(Harvard University Research).


Researchers found blonde-haired women generally make salaries that are 7% higher than those of women with other-color tresses. (University of Queensland)

Researchers found that a woman’s weight negatively impacts her household income and “job prestige.” In fact, a 1% increase in body mass results in a 0.6 percentage point decrease in family income. (New York University)


Attractive people perceived as more persuasive

Greater success getting others to do what they desire, were judged to have better sales skills, were treated more cordially, and elicited more willingness by people to contribute to a charitable organization (Reingen & Kernan, 1993).


Attractive defendants are less likely to be judged guilty and, if convicted, are more likely to receive shorter sentence.

(Downs & Lyons, 1991; Efran, 1974; Kulka & Kessler, 1978; Weiten, 1980)


Perception you have of how attractive your body is:  Developed through communication with others  Influences communication with others  Satisfaction with body concept is important to self-esteem and

relational success


Painful preoccupation with physical appearance and attributes (e.g. body shape, size, height, weight, etc.)

Constant comparison of appearance to others

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