What is the normal volume of urine excreted in a 24-hour period?




Characteristics  ofUrine

1.  What is the normal volume of urine excreted in a 24-hour period?                                                   

2.  Assumingnormalconditions,notewhethereachofthefollowingsubstanceswouldbe(a)ingreaterrelativeconcentration intheurinethanintheglomerularfiltrate,(b)inlesserconcentrationintheurinethanintheglomerularfiltrate,or(c)absent fromboththeurineandtheglomerularfiltrate.

                    1. water

                    6.  aminoacids

                 11.  uricacid

                    2.  phosphateions

                    7.  glucose

                 12.  creatinine

                    3.  sulfateions

                    8.  albumin

                  13.  pus (WBCs)

                    4.  potassiumions

                    9.  redbloodcells

                  14.  nitrites

                    5.  sodiumions

                  10.  urea

3.  Explain why urinalysis is a routine part of any good physical examination.                                                                                                               

4.  Whatsubstanceisresponsibleforthenormalyellowcolorofurine?                                                                                                                            

5.  Which hasagreater specific gravity: 1ml ofurine or1ml ofdistilled water?                                                   Explain youranswer.                       

6.  Explaintherelationshipbetweenthecolor,specificgravity,andvolumeofurine.                                                                                                              


7.  Amicroscopicexaminationof urinemayrevealthepresenceof certainabnormalurinaryconstituents.

Namethreeconstituentsthatmightbepresentifaurinarytractinfectionexists.                                                                             ,

                                                                       , and                                                                         

8.  HowdoesaurinarytractinfectioninfluenceurinepH?                                                                                                                              How does starvation influence urine pH?                                                                                                                                                                     

9.  Allurinespecimens become alkaline andcloudyonstandingatroomtemperature. Explain why.                                                                                     


10.  Severalspecifictermshavebeenusedtoindicatethepresenceofabnormal urineconstituents.Identifyeachoftheabnor- malitiesdescribedbelowby insertingatermfromthekeyattherightthatnamesthecondition.Answer can be used

more than once.

                                                       1.     presenceof erythrocytesintheurine

                                                       2.     presenceof hemoglobinintheurine

                                                       3.     presenceof glucoseintheurine

                                                       4.     presenceof albuminintheurine

                                                       5.     presenceof ketonebodies(acetoneandothers)


                                                       6.     presenceof pus (whitebloodcells)intheurine


a.     albuminuria b.               glycosuria

c.     hematuria

d.     hemoglobinuria e.        ketonuria

f.      pyuria

11.  Whatarerenalcalculi,andwhatconditionsfavortheirformation?                                                                                                                                       

12.  Glucoseandalbuminarebothnormallyabsentintheurine,butthereasonfortheirexclusiondiffers.Explainthereasonfor theabsenceof glucose.                                                                                                                                                                Explain the reason for the absence of albumin.                                                                                                                         

13.  Thepresenceofabnormalconstituents orconditionsinurinemaybeassociatedwithdiseases,disorders,orothercauses listedinthekey.Selectandlistallconditionsassociatedwitheachnumbereditem.

                   1.  low specificgravity

                   2.  highspecificgravity

                   3.  glucose

                   4.  albumin

                   5.  bloodcells

                   6.  hemoglobin

                   7.  bilirubin

                   8.  ketonebodies

                   9.  casts

                 10.  pus


a.     cystitis(inflammationof thebladder)

b.     diabetesinsipidus c.    diabetesmellitus

d.     eatinga5-lbbox of sweets for lunch e.    glomerulonephritis

f.      gonorrhea

g.     hemolyticanemias

h.     hepatitis,cirrhosisof theliver i.                kidneystones

j.      pregnancy,exertion k.  pylonephritis

l.      starvation

14.  Namethethreemajornitrogenouswastesfoundintheurine.                                                                                                              ,

                                                                                                    , and                                                                                                              

15.  Explain the difference between organized and unorganized sediments.                                                                                                                          

284         ReviewSheet 41A

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